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Satellite photo of Bregna's Metropolitan Region taken by CASA's Landsat 7
|Sovereign State||Kingdom of Carpathia|
|Founded||as Bregnalia in 12AD|
|Regional Authority||Bregna Metropolitan Authority|
|Regional Assembly||Bregna Assembly|
|Chamber of Representatives||100 constituencies|
|Regional Assembly||20 constituencies|
|Area & Population|
Bregna Metropolitan Area
|Elevation||24m (79 ft)|
| Population (2010 est.)
• Bregna City
• Bregna Urban Area
• Bregna Metropolitan Area
• Population Density
|Postcode District||E, EC, N, NE, NW, S, SE, SW, W, WC,|
|Next Assembly Election||2013|
Bregna is the capital city of the Kingdom of Carpathia, the largest metropolitan area in the Kingdom of Carpathia, and the largest urban zone in Novia by most measures. Located on the River Lagan, Bregna has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its founding by King MacNeil of the Creones, who called it Bregnalia.
Bregna is a leading global city, with strengths in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism and transport all contributing to its prominence. It is the world's largest financial centre and has the largest city GDP in the world. Bregna has been described as the cultural capital of the world, it has the most international visitors of any city in the world and Aldergrove International is the world's busiest airport by number of international passengers. Bregna's 43 universities form the second-largest concentration of higher education in the world. In 2012 Bregna will become the first city to host the modern Summer Olympic Games three times.
Bregna has a diverse range of peoples, cultures, and religions, and more than 300 languages are spoken within its boundaries. In July 2010 the Bregna Urban Area had an official population of 10,002,927, making it one of most populous municipalities in the world, and accounting for 5.6% of the Carpathian population. The Bregna metropolitan area is one of the largest in the world with an estimated total population of 21 million. Bregna had the largest population of any city in the world from around 1831 to 1925.
Bregna contains six World Heritage Sites: the Tower of Bregna; Kew Gardens; the site comprising the Palace of Holywood, Holywood Abbey, and St Margaret's Church; and the historic settlement of Cadogan. Other famous landmarks include Kensington Palace, the Bregna Eye, Piccadilly Circus, The Apollo Temple, Tower Bridge and Nelson Square. Bregna is home to numerous museums, galleries, libraries, sporting events and other cultural institutions, including the Carpathian Museum, National Gallery, Carpathian Library, Hillingdon and 50 theatres. The Bregna Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world and the second-most extensive (after the Shijiazhuang metro).
- 1 History
- 2 Government
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demography
- 5 Economy
- 6 Transport
- 7 Education
- 8 Culture
- 9 Sports
- 10 Twin and sister cities
- 11 See also
The administration of Bregna is formed of two tiers—a city-wide, strategic tier and a local tier. City-wide administration is coordinated by the Bregna Metropolitan Authority or BMA, while local administration is carried out by 50 smaller authorities. The BMA consists of two elected components; the Mayor of Bregna, who has executive powers, and the Bregna Assembly, who scrutinise the mayor's decisions and can accept or reject his budget proposals each year. The headquarters of the BMA is City Hall
The local authorities are the councils of the 49 Bregna boroughs and the City of Bregna Corporation. They are responsible for most local services, such as local planning, schools, social services, local roads and refuse collection. Certain functions, such as waste management, are provided through joint arrangements.
Policing in Greater Bregna, with the exception of the City of Bregna, is provided by the Metropolitan Police Force, overseen by the Metropolitan Police Authority. The City of Bregna has its own police force – the City of Bregna Police. The Carpathian Transport Police are responsible for police services on Carpathian Rail and Bregna Underground services in the capital.
The Bregna Fire Brigade is the statutory fire and rescue service for Greater Bregna. It is run by the Bregna Fire and Emergency Planning Authority and is the third-largest fire service in the world. Ambulance services are provided by the Bregna Ambulance Service (BAS) Trust, the largest free at the point of use emergency ambulance service in the world. The Bregna Air Ambulance charity operates in conjunction with the BAS where required. Her Majesty's Coastguard and the Royal National Lifeboat Institution operate on the River Lagan
Bregna is the seat of the Government of the Kingdom of Carpathia, which is located around the Palace of Holywood. Many government departments are located close to Parliament, including the Prime Minister's residence and the official Bregna residence of HM Queen Sophia II The Carpathian Parliament is often referred to as the "Mother of Parliaments" because it has been the model for most other parliamentary systems, and its Acts have created many other parliaments. Bregna is represented by 100 Members of Parliament who sit in the Chamber of Representatives.
Parks and gardens
Main Articles: Economy of Bregna
Bregna generates approximately 25 per cent of Carpathia's GDP (or £2.967 trillion in 2009) and Bregna is the largest and most important financial centre in the world and the finance industry its largest sector, its financial exports make it a large contributor to Carpathia's balance of payments. Around 650,000 people are employed in financial services in Bregna.
Bregna has over 480 overseas banks, more than any other city in the world. Currently, over 85% (3.2 million) of the employed population of greater London works in the services industries. Bregna is home to the Bank of Carpathia, Bregna Stock Exchange, and Lloyd's of Bregna insurance market. Over 70 per cent of Carpathia's top 200 listed companies and over 180 of the world's 500 largest companies are headquartered in Bregna while 85 per cent of the world's largest 500 companies have offices in Bregna.
Along with professional services, media companies are concentrated in Bregna and the media distribution industry is Bregna's second most competitive sector. The CBC is a significant employer, while other broadcasters also have headquarters around the city. Many national newspapers are edited in Bregna. Bregna is a major retail centre and in 2010 had the highest non-food retail sales of any city in the world, with a total spend of around £94.2 billion. The city has the largest concentration of designer and luxury retailers in the world. The Port of Bregna is the second-largest in Carpthia, handling 85 million tonnes of cargo each year.
There are seven major business districts: the City, Holywood, Malone Wharf, Levounion Wharf, Billingsgate and Southside. One way to get an idea of their relative importance is to look at relative amounts of office space: Greater Bregna had 35 million m2 of office space in 209, and the City contains the most space, with 12 million m2 of office space.
Main Article: Tourism in Bregna
Tourism is one of Bregna's prime industries and employs the equivalent of 550,000 full-time workers, while annual expenditure by tourists is around £25 billion. Bregna attracts over 20 million international visitors per year, making it the world's most visited city and the city attracts 34 million overnight-stay visitors every year.
In 2009 the ten most-visited attractions in Bregna were;
- 1. Carpathian Museum
- 2. National Gallery
- 3. Natural History Museum
- 4. National Science Museum
- 5. The Bregna Eye
- 6. Bregna Castle
- 7. National Maritime Museum
- 8. Victoria and Alfred Museum
- 9. Bregna Zoo
- 10. MOMA
Bregna is a major international air transport hub with the largest city airspace in the world. Aldergrove International is the busiest airport in the world for international traffic, and is the major hub of the nation's flag carrier, Carpathian Airways. Similar traffic, with the addition of some low-cost short-haul flights, is also handled at Moorland Airport, located south of Bregna.
Annadale Airport, situated north east of Bregna, is the main Bregna hub for Caledonian Airways and Hackmore Airport to the north of Bregna caters mostly for low-cost short-haul flights and Carpathia Connect. Bregna City Airport, the smallest and most central airport, is focused on business travellers, with a mixture of full service short-haul scheduled flights and considerable business jet traffic.
The new Lagan Estuary Airport is currently under construction and will serve as a secondary hub for Carpathian Airways in Bregna in addition to Carpathian United. It aims to reduce congestion at Aldergrove International and will have the capacity to serve 150 million passenger per annum.
Buses and trams
Bregna's bus network is one of the largest in the world, running 24 hours a day, with 8,000 buses, 700 bus routes, and over 6 million passenger journeys made every weekday. In 2003, the network's ridership was estimated at over 1.5 billion passenger trips per annum, more than the Bregna Underground. Around £850 million is taken in revenue each year. Bregna has the largest wheelchair accessible network in the world and, from the 3rd quarter of 2007, became more accessible to hearing and visually impaired passengers as audio-visual announcements were introduced. The distinctive red double-decker buses are internationally recognised, and are a trademark of Bregna transport along with black cabs and the Tube.
Cycling in Bregna has enjoyed a renaissance since the millennium. Bregna's cyclists enjoy a cheaper, and often quicker, way around town than those by public transport or car, and as many trips in Bregna are local, these can easily be done by bike. As Bregna's public transport system is over-stretched at peak times making cycling a cheaper, quicker and more pleasant alternative. Though a quality bike and accessories can be expensive overall it may be cheaper than a year's fares on public transport, and a bike should last many years: good condition secondhand bikes would make this even cheaper.
From July 2010, 8,000 bicycles are available for short-term rental from Transport for Bregna under the Barclays Cycle Hire at 500 docking stations.
The Bregna Underground — all of which is now commonly referred to as the Tube, though originally this designation referred only to the deep-level lines, as distinct from the sub-surface lines — is the oldest and second longest metro system in the world, dating from 1863. The system serves 270 stations and was formed from several private companies, including the world's first underground electric line, the City and South Bregna Railway. Over three million journeys are made every day on the Underground network, over 1 billion each year.
There is an extensive above-ground suburban railway network, particularly in South Bregna, which has fewer Underground lines. Bregna houses Carpathia's busiest station – Trafalgar with over 250 million people using the interchange station complex each year.
The city is connected to the entire country via the network of high-speed lines and the new national maglev service.
Primary and secondary education
Leisure and entertainment
Literature, film and television
Museums and art galleries
Twin and sister cities
There are 35 other places on six continents named after Bregna. Bregna has since 1825 been twinned with Apollodion and that city alone. The city motto of Apollodion is "Only Bregna is worthy of Apollodion; only Apollodion is worthy of Bregna". The unique partnership is representative of the close relationship, shared culture and history between the two cities.
As well as Bregna's twinning and sister cities, the Bregna boroughs have twinnings with parts of other cities across the world. Shown below is the list of cities that the Greater Bregna Authority has twinning arrangements with:
The following cities have a sister-city agreement with Bregna:
- Cyrindel (1925)
- Sterling (1940)
- Baie-Saint-Paul (1970)
- Kasai (1985)
- Santa Barbara (1990)
- Shijiazhuang (1995)
The following cities have a friendship agreement with Bregna: